Turkish Alphabet

Nowadays the Turkish language is written using a slightly modified Latin script. Mandated in 1928 as part of Atatürk's Reforms, it is the current official alphabet and the latest in a series of distinct alphabets used in different eras.

There are 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. Three letters that exist in the Latin script (Q, X, W) do not exist in the Turkish alphabet.

Turkish orthography is highly regular and a word's pronunciation is usually identified by its spelling. Each letter retains its individual pronunciation at all times. Some even believe the Turkish alphabet to be among the world’s 3 most phonetic alphabets.

Here are some of the other features of the Turkish alphabet.

  • Dotted and dotless I are separate letters, each with its own uppercase and lowercase forms. The lowercase form of I is ı, and the lowercase form of İ is i.
  • Turkish does not allow two vowels to occur together, and there are no diphthongs except in a few foreign loan words.
  • There are six pairs of two similar but different letters. There is a difference in the pronunciation of each letter. These letters are: C – Ç, G – Ğ, I – İ, O – Ö, S – Ş, U – Ü.
  • A notable feature of the phonology of Turkish is a system of vowel harmony that causes vowels in most words to be either front or back and either rounded or unrounded.
  • The letter -Y- is considered as a consonant in Turkish. It is used as a buffer consonant to keep vowels apart during word building.

As you can see, the “unusual” letters may take some getting used to, but otherwise, the Turkish alphabet and pronunciation are relatively easy to master.

Turkish Vocabulary Books

Learn Turkish - Quick / Easy / Efficient

Learn Turkish - Quick / Easy / Efficient

This vocabulary book is a curated Turkish word frequency list with 2000 of the most common Turkish words and phrases. Following the Pareto principle (80/20 rule), this book is built to streamline the learning process by concentrating on the core words and sentence structures. The result is a unique book ideal for driven learners and language hackers.

Turkish Vocabulary Book

This Turkish vocabulary book contains more than 3000 words and phrases and is organized by topic to make it easier for you to pick what to learn first. It is well suited for learners of all levels who are looking for an extensive resource to improve their vocabulary or are interested in learning vocabularies in one particular area of interest.

Turkish Flashcards


Turkish Flashcards Online

On our partner platform Flashcardo you can find Turkish flashcards to practice online for free ordered by topics and frequency of use, similar to our two vocabulary books above.

Printable Turkish Flashcards

With this downloadable product you get all Turkish flashcards available on Flashcardo.com in various formats for you to use. In detail you get 1 EPUB ebook, 2 PDF vocabulary lists and 8 printable flashcard PDFs.

Free Learning Resources